Javascript is not activated in your browser. This website needs javascript activated to work properly.
You are here

Removal of APIs and bacteria from hospital wastewater by MBR plus O-3, O-3 + H2O2, PAC or ClO2

  • U. Nielsen
  • C. Hastrup
  • M. M. Klausen
  • B. M. Pedersen
  • G. H. Kristensen
  • Jes la Cour Jansen
  • S. N. Bak
  • J. Tuerk
Publishing year: 2013
Language: English
Pages: 854-862
Publication/Series: Water Science and Technology
Volume: 67
Issue: 4
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: IWA Publishing


The objective of this study has been to develop technologies that can reduce the content of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and bacteria from hospital wastewater. The results from the laboratory-and pilot-scale testings showed that efficient removal of the vast majority of APIs could be achieved by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by ozone, ozone + hydrogen peroxide or powdered activated carbon (PAC). Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was significantly less effective. MBR + PAC (450 mg/l) was the most efficient technology, while the most cost-efficient technology was MBR + ozone (156 mg O-3/l applied over 20 min). With MBR an efficient removal of Escherichia coli and enterococci was measured, and no antibiotic resistant bacteria were detected in the effluent. With MBR + ozone and MBR + PAC also the measured effluent concentrations of APIs (e.g. ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethizole) were below available predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) for the marine environment without dilution. Iodinated contrast media were also reduced significantly (80-99% for iohexol, iopromide and ioversol and 40-99% for amidotrizoateacid). A full-scale MBR treatment plant with ozone at a hospital with 900 beds is estimated to require an investment cost of (sic)1.6 mill. and an operating cost of (sic)1/m(3) of treated water.


  • Chemical Engineering
  • Advanced oxidation processes
  • bacteria
  • hospital wastewater
  • MBR
  • pharmaceuticals


  • ISSN: 0273-1223