Thylakoid enriched powder product Appenthyl is resistant against gastrointestinal digestion and keeps on inhibiting lipolysis
Publishing year: 2014
Document type: Student publication for Master's degree (two years)
In earlier studies it was revealed that thylakoid membranes inhibit activity of pancreatic lipase/colipase. More studies have shown that these membranes induce satiety hormone CCK and reduce hunger hormone of rats and human. Appethyl® used in this project is processed from spinach leaves in such a way that it reserves most amounts of thylakoid membranes. The results, in this project, shows that Appethyl® can inhibit the activity of lipase/colipase after digestive treatment. Separate reactions indicate highest inhibition capacity of Appethyl® after pepsin and gastric juice digestion. The positive thing is that, Appethyl® shows inhibition capacity on lipase/colipase even after treatment with pepsin, trypsin, pepsin/ trypsin, gastric juice (GJ), pancreatic juice(PJ), gastric/pancreatic juice. Treatment with GJ followed by long time in PJ also does not affect the thylakoid membranes present in Appethyl®. This conclusion was based on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis gel picture with Appethyl® incubated 45 minutes in GJ and 0-6 hours in PJ. This is also supported by the result of inhibition capacity by Appethyl® as 36%- 31% after GJ /PJ treatment. SDS-PAGE gel treated and untreated Appethyl® showed that there were protein bands at the MW position for LCH II and Rubisco large chain and Rubisco small chain.
Fat digestion refers to breaking down of lipid to free fatty acids; this process is termed as lipolysis. Lipolysis includes a reaction between lipase enzymes and triacylglycerol, where lipase is activated by its coenzyme colipase and colipase is activated by bile salt which is secreted from gall bladder in the form of bile acid. Free fatty acids are absorbed by body; releasing less fatty acid is related to less absorption. This releasing process can be made slow by inhibiting lipolysis in presence of bile salt. In earlier studies, it was observed that lipolysis can be delayed by thylakoid membranes. Thylakoid membranes were extracted from chloroplast of plant leave cells. Other studies have shown that these membranes induce satiety hormone CCK and reduce hunger hormone ghrelin. Pure thylakoid membranes are extracted mechanically with chemicals and can inhibit lipolysis up to 80%. Appethyl® is a powder form of thylakoids which is also extracted from plant leave cells, especially from spinach leave cells. This product does not contain pure thylakoid membranes due to its preparation procedure but the extraction process does not involve any harmful chemical for human physiology. Additionally, it contains other cell organelles from spinach leaves. Due to the impurities it did not show the same level of inhibition capacity. The positive thing is that, Appethyl® shows inhibition capacity on lipase/colipase even after the treatment with pepsin, trypsin, pepsin/ trypsin, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, gastric/pancreatic juice. In conclusion, Appethyl® delays fat digestion in stomach and in duodenum. This leads to delayed absorption of fat by the body. Treatment with gastric juice followed by a long time in pancreatic juice also did not affect the thylakoid membranes present in Appethyl®, this conclusion was based on Appethyl® incubated for 0-6 hours in pancreatic juice after 45 minutes incubation in gastric juice. This indicates that Appethyl® stays a long time in duodenum, and remains almost undigested and thus works better.
- Per-Åke Albertsson
- Sinan Cem Emek