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Syntes och design : Den intellektuelle politikern som konstnär


  • Rune Gustafsson

Summary, in English

A new theory on the intellectual politician, which has the ability to produce a designed type of problem-solving, has been developed from political science theory, cognitive theory as well as art theory. A cognitive concept, modified integrative complexity, consisting of four sub-concepts, frame reflection, differentiation, reframing and integration has been developed. The relation between politicians and the electorate is captured in the second new concept, political design, consisting of the sub-concepts, launch, connecting form, associatory ways and visualisation.

In developing the theory, a case study comprising nine contextually chosen empirical illustrations from political speeches and writing by the Austrian Otto Bauer, the Englishman Stafford Cripps and the Swede Ernst Wigforss, has been used.

Using a two-by-two matrix with integrative complexity and capacity for political design on the axes, four types of intellectual politician are presented; the critic, the pragmatist, the theorist and the artist. These types increase the understanding of politics on a general level. In a pluralistic, democratic system all four types of intellectual politician are generally represented and they can correct one another and balance each other out. The critic can call out warnings and tell the artist off, when needed. The theorist can instruct the artist that the choice of the solution is insufficiently considered. The pragmatist and the artist can illustrate the importance of artistry to the critic and the theorist. The artist and the theorist, on the other hand, can contribute to the pragmatist and the critic becoming aware of more aspects of different problems.

In the final chapter a synthesis of the politician and the creative artist is developed in three steps, using the concepts artistic transference, political design and the heritage of forms.

Publishing year





Lund Political Studies



Document type



Department of Political Science, Lund University


  • Political Science


  • the heritage of forms
  • individuation
  • artistic transference
  • conceptual histories
  • political design
  • frame reflection
  • integrative complexity
  • the intellectual politician
  • synthesis
  • design
  • Political and administrative sciences
  • Statsvetenskap
  • förvaltningskunskap




  • [unknown] [unknown]


  • ISSN: 0460–0037
  • ISBN: 91-88306-62-3

Defence date

1 February 2002

Defence time


Defence place

Room 116 (hörsalen) at the Department of Political Science


  • Gunnar Skogmar (Associate Professor)